Pathophysiology of COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a life-threatening condition. It affects lungs and ability to breathe. The pathophysiology of the disease, or the physical changes associated with it, start with damage to airways and the air sacs in lungs. It progresses from a cough with mucus to difficulty breathing. To understand COPD's pathophysiology, it's essential to understand the structure of the lungs. When you inhale, air moves down in trachea through two tubes called bronchi. The bronchi branch out into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the ends of the bronchioles are little air sacs called alveoli. And at the end of alveoli are capillaries, which are tiny blood vessels.

  • Inflammatory mediators
  • Oxidative stress
  • Mucous Hypersecretion
  • Air trapping

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