Pathogenesis of COPD

The diseases that fall under the scope of COPD are: Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema and COPD-Asthma overlap. Chronic Bronchitis causes inflammation and irritation of the airways, the tubes in your lungs where air passes through. When the air tubes are inflamed and irritated, thick mucus begins to form in them. Over time, this mucus plugs up airways and makes breathing difficult. When you cough this mucus up, the excretions are known as sputum, or phlegm. Emphysema is a common type of COPD in which the air sacs of the lungs become damaged, causing them to enlarge and burst. Damage in this area makes it difficult for people with emphysema to expel air from their lungs. This leads to a build-up of carbon dioxide in the body and a myriad of emphysema signs and symptoms. Asthma COPD Overlap Syndrome (ACOS) is usually characterized by increased reversibility of airflow obstruction, eosinophilic bronchial and systemic inflammation, and increased response to inhaled corticosteroids, compared with COPD patients. The relevance of the ACOS is the need to identify patients with COPD who may have underlying eosinophilic inflammation that responds better to inhaled corticosteroids. Until new diagnostic tools are developed, a previous diagnosis of asthma in a patient with COPD can be a reliable criterion to suspect ACOS in a patient with COPD.

  • Airway inflammation
  • Pathology of Smoking
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Gas Exchange Abnormalities
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Nutritional Disorders
  • Cancer
  • Pulmonary Rehabilitation

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