Management of COPD

COPD Management strategy consisting of combined pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacotherapeutic interventions can effectively improve symptoms, activity levels and quality of life at all levels of disease severity. Medical Management of COPD involves Oral and inhaled medications are used for patients with stable disease to reduce dyspnoea and improve exercise tolerance. Most of the medications used are directed at the four potentially reversible causes of airflow limitation in a disease state that has largely fixed obstruction. Beta2-agonist bronchodilators activate specific B2-adrenergic receptors on the surface of smooth muscle cells, which increases intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and smooth muscle relaxation. Theophylline is a bronchodilator and an anti-inflammatory agent. Surgical Management of COPD including the surgical interventions directed only to patients who remain symptomatic despite optimal medical treatment. There are numerous surgical interventions for the treatment of the hyper expanded and poorly perfused emphysematous lung; these include costochondrectomy, phrenic crush, pneumoperitoneum, pleural abrasion, lung denervation, and thoracoplasty. Nursing Management of COPD involves maintaining adequate nutrition, the nurse explores the patient’s and family’s usual dietary habits and counsels the patient to select foods that provide a high-protein, high-calorie diet. The nurse encourages the patient to talk about anxiety and fears with family members and health care professionals. The nurse should foster a realistic assessment of abilities and limitations, with a focus on those activities the patient is still able to do. Positive body responses should be stressed without negating the seriousness of the health issues involved. Vocational rehabilitation may be an option for some patients. It is important to counsel the patient to select foods that derive their calories from high fat rather than high carbohydrate levels. Persons with advanced chronic bronchitis or emphysema are unable to exhale the excess carbon dioxide that is a natural end product of carbohydrate metabolism may elevate paco2 levels.

  • Medical Management
  • Surgical Management
  • Nursing Management

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